This type of corneal transplant is performed when both the front and back layers of the cornea are abnormal.
Corneal transplantation is performed using local or general anesthesia in the operating room. A circular blade is used to remove a full-thickness disc of most of the cornea and a new disc of human donor cornea is sutured into place.
Advantages of this type of transplant include replacement of all layers of the cornea, a long successful track record, fairly straightforward surgery and ready access to perform surgery inside of the eye.
Disadvantages include a relatively long visual recovery period, a large wound with many sutures, possible high degree of astigmatism and unpredictable post-operative refraction.