President Trump is scheduled to be in Philadelphia on Tuesday, September 15, 2020 at The National Constitution Center (NCC) in the Independence Mall area. Increased police presence is anticipated in Center City throughout Tuesday afternoon and evening. Please allow extra time if you are going to Wills Eye. Please be advised of area street closures to vehicles beginning at 1:00PM on Tuesday 9/15. Pedestrian access will also be limited in the area. This is subject to change and area restrictions, which could widen, will be lifted once the President departs the NCC. There are also demonstrations planned for Tuesday 9/15 around Independence Mall as well as City Avenue.

Dry Eye Syndrome


Dry Eye Syndrome (also called dry eye disease, dysfunctional tear syndrome, and keratitis sicca) is a poorly functioning tear layer covering the cornea and conjunctiva, usually caused by inadequate quantity and/or quality of the tears.


Symptoms of dry eye syndrome are dryness, grittiness, burning sensation, blurred vision, fluctuating vision, redness, mucous discharge, contact lens intolerance and ironically, episodes of excess tearing. Many of these symptoms also can be caused by other ocular conditions, such as blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids) and ocular allergies.


There are two primary causes of dry eye:

  1. Aqueous tear deficiency where there is an insufficient amount of tears produced to adequately lubricate the ocular surface; and
  2. Evaporative tear deficiency where the lipid layer of the tears (produced by the meibomian glands) is inadequate to prevent rapid tear evaporation. Most patients have a combination of both.

Risk Factors

Increasing age, female gender, certain medications such as oral beta-blockers, anti-histamines, certain systemic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome.


Filamentary keratopathy, corneal abrasions, corneal scarring, corneal ulceration, corneal perforation.

Tests and Diagnosis 

Slit lamp examination is essential. Other tests include Schirmer test, ocular surface staining with fluorescein or lissamine green, tear osmolarity testing, tear MMP-9 testing.


Stepwise approach to treatment including tears with preservative, tears without preservatives, tear gels and ointments, cyclosporine drops, punctal plugs, short course of steroid drops, Lacriserts. More aggressive treatments include punctal occlusion with cautery, serum tears, scleral contact lens such as the PROSE lens, small lateral tarsorrhaphy (closure of the eyelids). Treat blepharitis if present.


Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation


Treating patients when they have early signs or symptoms is the best way to prevent progression of the disease and permanent visual complications.

Dry Eye Syndrome Photos


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