Conjunctival melanoma is a cancerous, life-threatening growth that typically occurs as a painless brown spot on the eye in midlife. Sometimes it starts as a painless, flat brown discoloration of the surface of the eye, termed primary acquired melanosis. This is often mistaken for a benign freckle, but actually is a serious precancerous condition. It can evolve into one or more brown or pink nodules on the eye. Conjunctival melanoma is more often found in white skinned patients more so than dark skinned patients.
Conjunctival melanoma can recur locally and metastasize to lymph nodes and other organs. Early treatment is important, and the best chance of cure is achieved with excisional biopsy using partial lamellar scleroconjunctivectomy, a method of complete removal of the tumor. A "no touch" technique should be employed. Cryotherapy, alcohol epitheliectomy and alcohol sclerectomy are also applied.