Normal Tension Glaucoma
Normal tension glaucoma, also referred to as low tension glaucoma or normal pressure glaucoma, is a type of open-angle glaucoma where damage to the optic nerve occurs without intraocular pressure falling outside of a normal range. This differs from other types of glaucoma, where damage to the optic nerve occurs due to heightened intraocular pressure. At this time, researchers are still not completely sure why or how normal tension glaucoma occurs.
WHAT IS NORMAL INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE?
It is important to understand that there is no normal intraocular pressure, and no one number for intraocular pressure is safe for everyone. Instead, there is an average pressure range and intraocular pressure may be elevated, within the average range, or lower than average. Studies done on large populations in the United States indicate that average intraocular pressure is between 15-16 mmHg and about 95% of people have an intraocular pressure between ten and 21.
As for the connection between normal tension glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma, people with average pressure glaucoma never get an elevated intraocular pressure where those with P.O.A.G. do present with elevated pressure levels.
CAUSES OF LOW TENSION GLAUCOMA
While we still have a lot to learn about the causes behind low tension glaucoma, the current understanding is that damage to the optic nerve without elevated intraocular pressure is due to either reduced blood flow to the optic nerve or an optic nerve that is otherwise already susceptible to damage.
Low tension glaucoma can run in families, so a family history of this illness is considered to be a strong risk factor. Other low tension glaucoma risk factors include age, irregular blood flow to the optic nerve, diabetes, sleep apnea, Raynaud’s syndrome, migraines, and anatomical abnormalities of the structures around the optic nerve.
LOW TENSION GLAUCOMA SYMPTOMS
Not all individuals with low tension glaucoma experience symptoms, however, some may occur. These include:
- Changes in blood pressure
- Migraine headaches
- Blurred vision
- Stinging or itchy eyes
We encourage you to see a specialist right away if you are experiencing the symptoms above.
EYE PRESSURE TEST TO DIAGNOSE LOW TENSION GLAUCOMA
The most common diagnostic method used to identify low tension glaucoma is a type of glaucoma eye pressure test known as tonometry. This test measures intraocular pressure within each eye, with measurements taken at different times throughout the day since levels may change from hour to hour.
Other diagnostic tests for this illness include:
- Slit lamp examination, which can identify other signs or symptoms of glaucoma
- Pachymetry, to measure corneal thickness
- Gonioscopy, to check the angle between the cornea and iris
Your physician will likely use multiple diagnostic tests.
TREATING NORMAL PRESSURE GLAUCOMA
Treatments for normal pressure glaucoma are focused on manually lowering eye pressure, and may include:
- Laser treatments
- Conventional surgery
Sometimes it is also advised that patients stop taking certain currently prescribed medications.
Contact us today at Wills Eye Hospital for eye pressure testing and low tension glaucoma treatments. If you are experiencing any of the acute symptoms mentioned above, it is advised that you seek medical assistance as soon as possible.